Listening in to the session on Brain Machine Interfaces here at HealthCampFlorida
Hearing how scientists trained monkeys using bio feedback to train monkeys.
Helped Amputees imagine moving a missing limb. Some remapping occurs in the brain.
Brain computer interfaces are more generalized than brain robotic interfaces.
Fine grained detection at the micron level requires surgery.
Coarser and slow monitoring is possible without invasive surgery. Devices for this are incredibly expensive.
EKGs are a mid point.
EEG based Brain Computer Interfaces are very cheap. Electrodes are placed on the skull. The downside is that the learning curve is time consuming but they are not suitable for precise control.
Discrete Decision Making P300 – can detect a brain wave 300ms after an unexpected event.
Neuron Spike based BMI surgical procedure. Implanted in surgery via a pneumatic gun. High speed and precise control but spikes have a limited life of up to 3-5 years. implanted in to the motor cortex. The problem is that the detection decreases over time. Still very much a research level activity.
Decoding – Neurons prefer to fire in a specific direction. Amalgamate the readings from a group of neurons and you can determine movements – even imagined movements.
Trends in Brain Computer and Brain Motor Interface Research.
– Progressed from binary decision to 3D
– Moving from Laboratory test to clinical trial
Cyberkinetics, Inc. have FDA Approval for brain implants.
Now testing Force based motor control.
The newest research is on erasing memories. The molecule for Long Term Potentiation has been isolated. PKMzeta is needed to maintain LTP. PKMzeta can be blocked by using ZIP (protein) to block. Boosting PKMzeta can lead to faster learning.
This is cutting edge stuff. It makes you wonder is PTSD can be alleviated by erasing certain memories without damaging the brain.
Non-invasive techniques are most promising for motor control but it takes training. The challenge is that some people are naturally adept at controlling this and other people are not.